Teen smoking, depression up risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis _ psych central news menstrual symptoms during menopause

The new study is the first to look at the long-term effects of smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls and the potential postmenopausal impact of osteoporosis and bone fractures.

Osteoporosis is a costly health problem. First signs of the menopause Although it is primarily evident in postmenopausal women, its roots can be traced to periods of growth, including adolescence.

In 2005, there were an estimated two million fractures attributed to osteoporosis costing an estimated $19 billion.


Age menopause can start These numbers are expected to rise to three million fractures and $25.3 billion in costs each year by 2025, presenting a significant public health burden.

Several research studies have shown that adult depression is associated with osteoporosis and lower bone mineral density (BMD). Menopause bloating weight gain Smoking also has a negative impact on bone health, with adult smokers having lower BMD compared to nonsmokers, likely increasing lifetime fracture risk by as much as 31 percent.

Both depression and substance use often become chronic after adolescence. Menopause tiredness a comprehensive view However, until the current study, researchers were uncertain on whether these factors affect bone accrual in adolescence.

For the study, investigators recruited 262 healthy girls between 11 and 19 years from a teen health clinic in a large children’s hospital and its surrounding community to represent typically developing adolescents and enrolled them in four age cohorts (11, 13, 15, and 17 years).

The goal was to have each age cohort reflect the number of smokers proportional to national statistics. Stages of menopause transition The girls each attended three annual onsite visits. Symptoms of menopause age Phone interviews were conducted at three-month intervals between annual visits.

Bone accrual trajectories from ages 11 to 19 were estimated for total-body bone mineral content (TB BMC) and lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density (BMD).

Researchers found that while smokers entered adolescence with equivalent levels of lumbar spine and total hip BMD, overall BMD accrual across adolescence was significantly lower as smoking frequency increased.

Depressive symptoms showed a slightly different pattern. Perimenopause symptoms bloating Girls with higher levels of symptoms had significantly lower lumbar spine BMD consistently across adolescence. Female menopause how long does it last There also was no association between alcohol use or anxiety symptoms or their interactions with age on any bone measure.

“Adolescence is a crucial period of development that lays the foundation for women’s health across the lifespan,” said lead investigator Lorah D. Wat is menopause Dorn, Ph.D. Perimenopause age 39 “As much bone is accrued in the two years surrounding menarche as is lost in the last four decades of life.

“To our knowledge, our study is the first to test and demonstrate that smoking behavior and depressive symptoms in girls have a negative impact on bone accrual across adolescence. Hysterectomy menopause side effects It may be premature to advocate screening for BMD in adolescents with depressive symptoms or those who smoke, but our study should be replicated to determine whether greater vigilance in monitoring bone mineral status is necessary,” she said.

In a commentary, outside experts praised the clinical and public health importance of the research question and mention a number of potential biological and social factors that may have contributed to these results — such as the role of body-mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status, meal schedules, and the difficulty of identifying depressive symptoms in adolescence.

About Rick Nauert PhD Dr. Menopause society Rick Nauert has over 25 years experience in clinical, administrative and academic healthcare. Signs and symptoms of menopause and perimenopause He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. Night sweats perimenopause Dr. Symptoms of perimenopause at 42 Nauert began his career as a clinical physical therapist and served as a regional manager for a publicly traded multidisciplinary rehabilitation agency for 12 years. Symptoms of early menopause age 39 He has masters degrees in health-fitness management and healthcare administration and a doctoral degree from The University of Texas at Austin focused on health care informatics, health administration, health education and health policy. Soy and menopause mayo clinic His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a specialty in disease management.