Common pediatric bone diseases-approach to pathological fractures _ learn pediatrics skate 3 all bones broken

Background: It is not uncommon for children to present with fractures after experiencing trauma. Two timing touch and broken bones However, children may also present with pathological fractures, which are fractures that occur in abnormal bones and typically occur during routine activity or after minor trauma. Pictures of broken bones are produced using these It is important to be able to distinguish between traumatic fractures and pathological fractures as the prognosis and treatment can vary quite considerably. How long do broken collar bones take to heal One also MUST consider non-accidental injury in the child that presents with multiple unexplained fractures.

First aid kit for broken bones Non-accidental injuries are discussed in a separate article on this site.

These fractures will generally present as localized pain and tenderness over the involved bone. How common are broken bones Refusal to weight bear in the younger, non-verbal child is also very common.

Pathophysiology: Although there are many potential etiologies for weakened bone manifesting as pathological fractures, it is simple to divide it into three categories with common etiologies:

Metabolic Bone Disease: Normal bone growth and mineralization requires adequate calcium and phosphate. Treatment of broken bones There are numerous etiologies of rickets, including nutritional deficiencies (calcium, phosphate and vitamin D), drug induced, renal pathology, and tumours. Broken hand bones pictures The end result and clinical manifestations of rickets are secondary to the failure of calcification of the growth plate cartilage because of a deficiency of either calcium or phosphate. New type of cast for broken bones Rickets is defined as deficient mineralization at the bone’s growth plate whereas osteomalacia refers to impaired mineralization of the bone matrix. How do bones heal when broken Rickets is relatively common in children, especially those who have poor dietary intake, poor absorption, increased excretion of calcium, phosphate, or vitamin D, premature infants or breast-fed infants who are not supplemented with vitamin D. Real broken bones Regardless of whether it is calcium or phosphate deficient rickets, the typical clinical findings associated with Rickets include:

• Calcipenic rickets – hypoplasia of dental enamel, decreased muscle tone, delayed achievement of motor milestones, hypocalcemic seizures, increased sweating

Bone Tumors: Tumours, regardless of whether they are benign or malignant, can cause pathological fractures by growing and replacing the normal tissue of bone. Do all broken bones need casts This results in an abnormal, weakened bone more prone to fractures. Pictures of broken bones in foot In children, benign bone tumours are fairly common, but are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during evaluation for trauma or another condition, and thus, the true incidence is unknown. Drugs for broken bones If they are symptomatic, they may present with localized pain, swelling, deformity or a pathological fracture. Do broken bones hurt Most benign tumours generally present during the second decade. Healing broken bones Two examples of common benign tumours which can present as pathological fractures include non-ossifying fibroma, and osteoid osteomas.

Malignant bone tumours account for 5% of all pediatric malignancies, with the peak occurrence between the ages of 10-24. Broken bones heal The two most common malignant bone tumours in children are Ewing’s sarcoma and osteosarcoma which collectively make up 90% of the pediatric bone tumours. Really bad broken bones Ewing’s sarcoma is more common within the first 10 years, and then osteosarcoma becomes more common. How do bones heal after being broken The cancers often arise in the pelvis, femur, tibia and humerus. How long does it take to heal bone fracture These can commonly present with symptoms of pain and swelling, which may be worse with exercise or at night, and sometimes the first signs may be due to a pathological fracture.

Connective Tissue Disease: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited connective tissue disorder commonly known as “brittle bone disease” which can manifest in a wide spectrum, from mild to lethal forms. How to heal broken bones as quickly as possible It is usually due to a deficiency of normal Type I collagen, which is an organic component necessary for proper bone formation. Can broken bones heal Although its incidence is estimated to approximately 0.005%, it is important to include this disease in the differential diagnosis because it can present early in children as numerous and recurrent pathological fractures. Best over the counter pain reliever for broken bones The common clinical manifestations of OI include:

• Has the child had any previous fractures or any other concurrent fractures? If so, can you describe them? – to help determine pathological versus traumatic fracture

• Did the child have any previous bone pain? If so, can you describe what makes it better or worse? Also, does it get worse at night? To check for potential bone tumors

• Does the child have a fever? To rule out any potential infectious causes or malignancies (constitutional symptoms – fevers, weight loss, drenching night sweats)